A full treatment of this subject is beyond our site's scope, however, The Tactical Technology Collective's Quick Guide to Alternatives is a brief, well-assembled overview of security and privacy tools.
Journalists and activists may further find Security in a Box useful; the product of a partnership between Frontline Defenders and Tactical Technology Collective. The site contains guides to securing live communications and stored data.
More recent: Encryption Works: How to Protect Your Privacy in the Age of NSA Surveillance, a whitepaper from Freedom of the Press Foundation.
A quick guide to software alternatives from Tactical Tech.
Prism Break provides an overview of software that can assist in defeating or avoiding recently revealed state spying programs such as XKeyscore and PRISM.
U.S. Corporate Information Portal - Links to all fifty Secretaries of State
SourceWatch is a project of the Center for Media and Democracy, with ample information on front groups, cutouts, and paid shills in D.C. and elsewhere. Created by Sheldon Rampton in 2003; originally "DisinfoPedia".
Crocodyl - Collaborative Research on Corporations
Mandasoft mergers and acquisitions database
Cryptome - Before WikiLeaks, there was John Young's site, a compendium of the State's memory holes. Archive browsing temporarily closed due to bot abuse; use a search engine.
The Sunlight Foundation offers a number of very powerful and intuitive tools for government research, such as Poligraft (bookmarklet for relations among news story subjects) and Muckrock (a public FOIA repository currently in closed beta)
Spokeo person search This people search tool is quite powerful, and will trawl through a variety of resources for search results. Can even show IP addresses.
IceRocket - social network searches
JotOnce - Password-protected textdrop
Dinkypage - HTML with custom URLs
Pastebin - known to give out IPs to anyone who asks so use a proxy
Mozilla Etherpad - Supports password-protected team workspaces!
Piratenpartei Pad - supports in-pad images
PiratePad - no HTTPS
TypeWith.me - no HTTPS
Disposable Chat Rooms
Babelwith.me - Features translation capabilities